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Human factors guidelines for remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) remote pilot stations (RPS)  (2016)
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This document contains a list of human factors guidelines for remote pilot stations (RPS) arranged within an organizing structure. The guidelines are intended for the RPS of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) that are capable of operating beyond visual line-of-sight in all classes of civil airspace.

Numerous human factors guidelines and standards for technological systems have been published by standards organizations and regulatory authorities. In compiling this document, the intent was not to reproduce or re-state existing human factors material. Instead, this document focuses on the unique issues of civilian RPAS operations, and contains guidelines specific to this sector. As a result, it should be seen as a supplement to existing aviation human factors standards and guidance material.

Two constraints were used to focus the scope of this document. First, the assumptions contained in the FAA (2013a) roadmap for the integration of unmanned aircraft systems were used to define the responsibilities that will be assigned to the pilot of a RPAS operating beyond visual line-of-sight (VLOS) in civil airspace. This in turn helped to define the tasks that the remote pilot must perform via the remote pilot station (RPS), and thereby the required features and characteristics of the RPS. Second, the points of difference between RPAS and conventional aviation were used to further focus the guidelines on the considerations that make piloting a RPA significantly different to piloting a conventional aircraft.

Five broad categories of guidelines are identified. These are (1) performance-based descriptions of pilot tasks that must be accomplished via the RPS, (2) information content of displays, (3) descriptions of control inputs, (4) properties of the interface, and (5) general design considerations. Some of the guidelines in this document have been adapted from existing RPAS human factors material from several sources, including RTCA publications and Standardization Agreements (STANAGs) published by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The use of quotation marks indicates that the wording of the guideline remains in its original form. In other cases, guidelines have been developed based on research conducted under the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) UAS in the NAS project. In a few places, existing aviation standards or general human factors guidelines have been quoted when they have particular relevance to RPAS.

Throughout this document, guidelines have been written with the words "should" or "will" except in cases where an existing guideline is quoted that contained a "shall" statement in its original form.
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Aircraft, Control, Factors, Ground, Guidelines, Human, Stations, System, UAS, Unmanned
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Contractor Report prepared for NASA UAS in the NAS Project
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Curator: Phil So
NASA Official: Alonso Vera
Last Updated: August 15, 2019